# 200 Number of Islands

Given an `m x n` 2d `grid` map of `'1'`s (land) and `'0'`s (water), return the number of islands.

An island is surrounded by water and is formed by connecting adjacent lands horizontally or vertically. You may assume all four edges of the grid are all surrounded by water.

Example 1:

``````Input: grid = [
["1","1","1","1","0"],
["1","1","0","1","0"],
["1","1","0","0","0"],
["0","0","0","0","0"]
]
Output: 1
``````

Example 2:

``````Input: grid = [
["1","1","0","0","0"],
["1","1","0","0","0"],
["0","0","1","0","0"],
["0","0","0","1","1"]
]
Output: 3
``````

Constraints:

• `m == grid.length`
• `n == grid[i].length`
• `1 <= m, n <= 300`
• `grid[i][j]` is `'0'` or `'1'`.

DFS/BFS: DFS/BFS over all unvisited nodes and count the number of initial DFS/BFS calls.
Union Find: For each land node, union it with its neighbor land.

 `````` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 `````` ``````class Solution: def numIslands(self, grid: List[List[str]]) -> int: m = len(grid) n = len(grid[0]) def dfs(row: int, col: int) -> None: grid[row][col] = '2' for dr, dc in [(1, 0), (-1, 0), (0, 1), (0, -1)]: r, c = row + dr, col + dc if 0 <= r < m and 0 <= c < n and grid[r][c] == '1': dfs(r, c) count = 0 for i in range(m): for j in range(n): if grid[i][j] == '1': count += 1 dfs(i, j) return count ''' Union Find ''' class Solution: def numIslands(self, grid: List[List[str]]) -> int: if not grid: return 0 m, n = len(grid), len(grid[0]) self.count = sum(grid[i][j] == '1' for i in range(m) for j in range(n)) parent = [i for i in range(m * n)] def find(x): if parent[x] != x: return find(parent[x]) return parent[x] def union(x, y): xroot, yroot = find(x), find(y) if xroot == yroot: return parent[xroot] = yroot self.count -= 1 for i in range(m): for j in range(n): if grid[i][j] == '0': continue idx = i * n + j if j+1 < n and grid[i][j+1] == '1': union(idx, idx+1) if i+1 < m and grid[i+1][j] == '1': union(idx, idx+n) return self.count``````
 `````` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 `````` ``````func numIslands(grid [][]byte) int { if grid == nil || len(grid) == 0 { return 0 } count := 0 for i := 0; i < len(grid); i++ { for j := 0; j < len(grid[i]); j++ { if grid[i][j] == '1' { count += dfs(grid, i, j) } } } return count } func dfs(grid [][]byte, i, j int) int { if i < 0 || i >= len(grid) || j < 0 || j >= len(grid[i]) || grid[i][j] == '0' { return 0 } grid[i][j] = '0' dfs(grid, i+1, j) dfs(grid, i-1, j) dfs(grid, i, j+1) dfs(grid, i, j-1) return 1 } func main() { // map1 := [][]byte{ // {'1', '1', '1', '1', '0'}, // {'1', '1', '0', '1', '0'}, // {'1', '1', '0', '0', '0'}, // {'0', '0', '0', '0', '0'}, // } map3 := [][]byte{ {'1', '1', '0', '0', '0'}, {'1', '1', '0', '0', '0'}, {'0', '0', '1', '0', '0'}, {'0', '0', '0', '1', '1'}, } fmt.Println(numIslands(map3)) }``````